A categorization of apprenticeships and the description of its characteristics

Between 2017 and 2018, the ApprenticeshipQ project has surveyed the European PHE/HVET market- both directly and through literature – in what regards the characterization of the apprenticeship schemes and from its analyses, the below typology of Apprenticeships has emerged.

Independent apprenticeships are those organized and managed by employers, without any involvement from educational institutions. They happen dissociated from any educational curricula, which means that, usually, the apprentices are not involved in any educational programme at the same time but, even if they are, there is no relation between the undergoing studies and the apprenticeship.

Cooperative apprenticeships are those organized and managed in cooperation between educational institutions and employers. They vary in terms of governance, some being more employer lead and others more educational institution lead, but they are always associated with a curriculum and are designed as a mean for students to put theory in practice and master knowledge in a way that empowers them with professional autonomy. Further details about their characteristics can be found at our Report “Typology of Apprenticeships in Higher Vocational Education“.

This typology will help identify different types of apprenticeships in Europe in the future, harmonize the dialogue between its actors across countries and facilitate mobility and recognition schemes.